Infantile esotropia is a form of ocular motility disorder where there is an inward turning of one or both eyes, commonly referred to as crossed. Resumen. Este ensayo reporta la presencia de Incomitancia Horizontal tanto en su forma pasiva como activa en pacientes con endotropia congénita y que. Characterization and classification of esotropia and its management with botulinum toxin. Article · January Maniobras exploratorias en la endotropia congénita.

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How is infantile esotropia treated? There are surgical and nonsurgical treatments available for exotropia. Stability of the esotropia angle is assessed prior to surgical intervention. Asthenopia Congenira Photophobia Scintillating scotoma. Close follow up is required especially in cross fixating children as amblyopia in one eye usually presents after surgical alignment.

Infantile Esotropia

Worth [1] theory suggests that there is an irreparable congenital defect in the infant’s visual system and that surgery can be carried out at leisure mostly for cosmetic purposes. Look up esotropia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Where the degree of hyperopia is large, the child may not be able to produce clear vision no matter how much extra-accommodation is exerted and thus no incentive exists conyenita the over-accommodation and convergence confenita can give rise to the onset of esotropia.

May Learn how and when to remove this template message. DVD is an upward drifting of the eyes that is usually most prominent in one eye. It is not associated with hyperopia, so the exertion of accommodative effort will not significantly affect the angle of congentia.

Therefore, they will have poor depth perception and atypical appearance. Detailed history taking regarding birth weight, complications of birth, the health of the child and developmental milestones may help in the management of the case. If esotropia is corrected before 2 years of age, there is a better chance of developing the ability to use both eyes together, which is referred to as binocularity. These problems may directly affect the extra-ocular muscles themselves, and may also result from conditions affecting the nerve or blood supply to these muscles or the bony orbital structures surrounding them.


Surgery is performed when any associated amblyopia has been treated and the amount of esotropia is stable. The other associated conditions of DVD and latent nystagmus usually appear later in life and may be addressed surgically at that point.

Globe Fibrous tunic Sclera Scleritis Episcleritis. Infantile esotropia is usually treated with strabismus surgery eye muscle surgery. The person with hyperopia, in an attempt to “accommodate” or focus the eyes, converges the eyes as well, as convergence is associated with activation of the accommodation reflex.

Concomitant esotropias can arise as an initial problem, in which case they are designated as “primary,” as a consequence of loss or impairment of vision, in which case they are designated as “secondary,” or following overcorrection of an initial exotropia in which case they are described as being “consecutive”.

American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

Intraocular congenifa is rare following strabismus surgery Patients should be followed closely for amblyopia, even if they achieve good motor alignment. Cataract Congenital cataract Childhood cataract Aphakia Ectopia lentis.

It occurs because the brain ignores input from an eye. From Wikipedia, the free cobgenita. Why does infantile esotropia occur? The cause of infantile esotropia is unknown.

Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, dongenita and refraction. Unilateral vision may be decreased by the nystagmus but bilateral vision vision with both eyes open is typically not affected. Many children will gradually learn to control their esotropias, sometimes with the help of orthoptic exercises.

In such cases an additional hyperopic correction is often prescribed in the form of bifocal lenses, to reduce the degree of accommodation, and hence convergence, being exerted.


Infantile esotropia is a form of ocular congenlta disorder where there is an inward turning of one or both eyes, commonly referred to as crossed eyes. However, others will eventually require extra-ocular muscle surgery to resolve their problems. A second type of accommodative esotropia also exists, known as ‘convergence excess esotropia. The over-convergence associated with the extra accommodation required to overcome a hyperopic refractive error can precipitate a loss of binocular control and lead to the development of esotropia.

Theoretically, the earlier the surgery is performed the better the potential for binocular function. Life threatening conditions such as retinoblastoma must be ruled out when infantile strabismus is noted. Privacy policy About EyeWiki Disclaimers.

Infantile Esotropia — AAPOS

Undercorrection and overcorrection are the most commonly noted complications. Children with infantile esotropia are usually not more nearsighted or farsighted than those without crossing. Complete sensory evaluation in a preverbal child is difficult. The slow phase is toward the side of the occluded eye.

What is infantile esotropia? History conggenita first presentation aided by photographs of the child in the first few months of life can assist in documenting the onset, detecting the stability of the condition and confirming the diagnosis.

Latent nystagmus may be present. Usually patients with infantile esotropia have equal visual acuity. Prematurity, congenitq, seizure disorders, developmental delay, intraventricular hemorrhage and a family history of strabismus are among the risk factors endotropi the development of infantile esotropia.

On average, by 2 months of age, the optic nerve completes myelinization. Link to strabismus surgery entry.